Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a vitally important molecule found in all living cells. Its primary function was considered to be as a co-enzyme in the energy-harnessing processes within cells.
Reduced levels of NAD+ will impact on cellular repair processes which could result in the development of disease and enhancement of the aging process. Every time we breathe, it burns the fuel in our cells and turns it into energy.
In turn, the energy runs through our cells to create million of chemical reactions needed to be alive. This oxidative stress causes many diseases as well as the aging process.
Excessive oxidative stress is a feature of conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Motor Neuron Disease), acute neurological conditions (trauma, hypoxia, epilepsy),
drug and alcohol addiction, presumed auto-immune disorders (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Lupus, Fibromyalgia, Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis), genetic diseases (Muscular Dystrophies, Mitochondrial diseases, Huntington's Disease)
and metabolic diseases (Diabetes type 2, respiratory and cardiovascular disease) as well as the aging process itself.
Some of the conditions treated with NAD:
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Lyme's Disease
- Alcohol Detox
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
History of NAD+
The NAD+ coenzyme was first discovered by British biochemists Arthur Harden and William John Young in 1906. They noticed adding boiled and filtered yeast extract accelerated alcoholic fermentation greatly in unboiled yeast extracts. They called the unidentified factor responsible for this effect a coferment.
Vitamin precursors of NAD+ were identified in 1938, when Conrad Elvehjem showed that live r has an "anti-black tongue" activity in the form of nicotinamide.
Then, in 1939, first strong evidence was found that niacin is used to synthesize NAD+. In the early 1940s, Arthur Kornberg made another important contribution towards understanding NAD+ metabolism, by being the first to detect an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway.
The metabolism of NAD+ has remained an area of intense research into the 21st century, with interest being heightened after the discovery of the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases called sirtuins in 2000, by Shin-ichiro Imai and coworkers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.